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how to establish a decentralized Ad-hoc WiFi network on a Linux Debian machine


WiFi Ad-hoc Network

This page describes how to establish a decentralized WiFi network.

Inhoud

  1. WiFi Ad-hoc Network
    1. Debian Method
    2. Manual Method
    3. Troubleshooting
    4. See Also

A wireless ad-hoc network – also known as Independent Basic Service Set (IBSS) – consists of local wireless devices (nodes) discovering each other and forming a network, each able to forward data for other nodes. An access point is not required for managing this communication.

In the following examples, two wireless LAN clients will be configured as ad-hoc network nodes with static IP addressing. Before continuing, install the wireless-tools package.

Debian Method

  1. On each node, open /etc/network/interfaces in a text editor:

    $ su
    # sensible-editor /etc/network/interfaces

  2. Define stanzas for each node’s wireless interface, setting the network SSID and the device’s operating mode to ad-hoc:

    Node A

    auto wlan0
    iface wlan0 inet static
        address 192.168.1.1
        netmask 255.255.255.0
        wireless-channel 1
        wireless-essid MYNETWORK
        wireless-mode ad-hoc

    Node B

    auto wlan0
    iface wlan0 inet static
        address 192.168.1.2
        netmask 255.255.255.0
        wireless-channel 1
        wireless-essid MYNETWORK
        wireless-mode ad-hoc

  3. Save the file and exit the editor.
  4. Raise the interface on each node:

    # ifup wlan0

  5. Scan for ad-hoc cells in range (necessary for some drivers to trigger IBSS scanning):

    # iwlist wlan0 scan
    wlan0     Scan completed :
              Cell 01 - Address: 02:0F:B5:4F:74:ED
                        ESSID:"MYNETWORK"
                        Mode:Ad-Hoc
                        Frequency:2.412 GHz (Channel 1)
                        Quality=42/70  Signal level=-53 dBm  Noise level=-95 dBm
                        Encryption key:off
                        Bit Rates:1 Mb/s; 2 Mb/s; 5.5 Mb/s; 11 Mb/s; 6 Mb/s
                                  9 Mb/s; 12 Mb/s; 18 Mb/s; 24 Mb/s; 36 Mb/s
                                  48 Mb/s; 54 Mb/s
                        Extra:bcn_int=100

  6. To test, ping node A from node B:

    you@nodeB$ ping 192.168.1.1
    PING 192.168.1.1 (192.168.1.1) 56(84) bytes of data.
    64 bytes from 192.168.1.1: icmp_seq=1 ttl=64 time=0.073 ms
    64 bytes from 192.168.1.1: icmp_seq=2 ttl=64 time=0.061 ms
    64 bytes from 192.168.1.1: icmp_seq=3 ttl=64 time=0.062 ms
    64 bytes from 192.168.1.1: icmp_seq=4 ttl=64 time=0.063 ms
    
    --- 192.168.1.1 ping statistics ---
    4 packets transmitted, 4 received, 0% packet loss, time 3001ms
    rtt min/avg/max/mdev = 0.061/0.064/0.073/0.010 ms

For general /etc/network/interfaces information, see the interfaces(5) man page.

Manual Method

  1. On each node, bring the wireless interface down, change the device’s operating mode and SSID, then raise the interface:

    $ su
    # ifconfig wlan0 down
    # iwconfig wlan0 channel 1 essid MYNETWORK mode ad-hoc
    # ifconfig wlan0 up

  2. Scan for ad-hoc cells in range (necessary for some drivers to trigger IBSS scanning):

    iwlist wlan0 scan
    wlan0     Scan completed :
              Cell 01 - Address: 02:0F:B5:4F:74:ED
                        ESSID:"MYNETWORK"
                        Mode:Ad-Hoc
                        Frequency:2.412 GHz (Channel 1)
                        Quality=42/70  Signal level=-53 dBm  Noise level=-95 dBm
                        Encryption key:off
                        Bit Rates:1 Mb/s; 2 Mb/s; 5.5 Mb/s; 11 Mb/s; 6 Mb/s
                                  9 Mb/s; 12 Mb/s; 18 Mb/s; 24 Mb/s; 36 Mb/s
                                  48 Mb/s; 54 Mb/s
                        Extra:bcn_int=100

  3. On each node, assign an IP address to the wireless interface:

    Node A

    # ifconfig wlan0 192.168.1.1 netmask 255.255.255.0

    Node B

    # ifconfig wlan0 192.168.1.2 netmask 255.255.255.0

  4. To test, ping node A from node B:

    you@nodeB$ ping 192.168.1.1
    PING 192.168.1.1 (192.168.1.1) 56(84) bytes of data.
    64 bytes from 192.168.1.1: icmp_seq=1 ttl=64 time=0.073 ms
    64 bytes from 192.168.1.1: icmp_seq=2 ttl=64 time=0.061 ms
    64 bytes from 192.168.1.1: icmp_seq=3 ttl=64 time=0.062 ms
    64 bytes from 192.168.1.1: icmp_seq=4 ttl=64 time=0.063 ms
    
    --- 192.168.1.1 ping statistics ---
    4 packets transmitted, 4 received, 0% packet loss, time 3001ms
    rtt min/avg/max/mdev = 0.061/0.064/0.073/0.010 ms

Troubleshooting

  • The default operating frequency/channel (2.412 GHz: channel 1) is frequently congested. Try using a different channel in the event of difficulties.
  • Wireless LAN devices compliant with IEEE 802.11 specifications will only support a maximum bit rate of 11 Mbit/s.

See Also

Debian Wireless Fidelity


Portal/IDB/icon-wifi-32x32.png This portal deals with the installation and configuration of WiFi devices. Device installation is essentially a two-part process: 1) installing the driver (also called a module) and 2) setting up your WiFi interface.

A WiFi device operates on an electronic chip called a “chipset”. We can find the same chipset in several different devices. Consequently, the driver/module for one chipset will work for all wireless devices using that chipset.

Free software based systems such as Debian depend on the cooperation between manufacturers and developers to produce and maintain quality drivers and firmware. Drivers and firmware are what determine if and how well your hardware works.

Debian’s Social Contract mandates the freeing of the distribution. In practice this means manufacturers are required to cooperate by releasing specifications and free drivers that can be worked on by the community. Newer versions of Debian (6+) do not include non-free drivers or firmware.

Non-free drivers and firmware are produced by companies refusing or unable to cooperate with the free software community. With non-free drivers and firmware support is often unavailable or severely strained. For instance features are often left out, bugs go unfixed, and what support does exist from the manufacture is fleeting.

By encouraging good social practices the community is able to support end-users. Complex installation procedures are no longer required and support continues long after a product has been discontinued.

Currently there are only a few modern wifi chipsets readily available that work with free software systems. For USB wifi devices this list includes the Realtek RTL8187B chipset (802.11G) and the Atheros AR9170 chipset (802.11N). For Mini PCIe all cards with an Atheros chipset are supported.

Wifi has always been a problem for free software users. USB Wifi cards are becoming less free. With the older 802.11G standard many USB wifi cards had free drivers and did not require non-free firmware. With 802.11N there is only one chipset on the market from Atheros which is completely free.

One company which specialises in free software and sells 802.11N USB wifi cards, ThinkPenguin.com, has indicated the availability of free software supported 802.11N USB wifi cards is disappearing. Solving this problem will require more demand than currently exists. Next time you purchase a piece of hardware ask yourself if it is free software compatible.

Continuing on, a WiFi interface is an Ethernet interface which also provides WiFi-specific configuration parameters. These parameters are controlled using the iwconfig program.

www.debian.org/doc/manuals/debian-reference/ch05 – Debian Reference Chapter 5 – Network setup

Prerequisites

  • wireless-tools, tools for manipulating Linux Wireless Extensions (installed by default on Desktop & Laptop installations)

  • For GUI systems:
    1. NetworkManager (installed by default on Gnome-Desktop & Laptop installation)

    2. wicd, a wired and wireless manager, is recommended for other environments without GNOME dependencies such as XFCE, Fluxbox, Openbox, Enlightenment.

  • wpasupplicant, client support for WPA and WPA2 networks

If these are missing, you can install these via:

aptitude install wireless-tools

…and similar

Install Driver

Before you buy, verify your intended device is supported by an available Linux driver. A good indication of support is Tux being displayed on the product’s packaging.

This section presents general lists of WiFi devices (grouped by host interface) and sorted by driver/module name. Each list has two main elements: the module name and the chipset(s) it supports. Known unsupported chipsets are at the end of each list.

If available, a help page link will provide you with further information. We recommend you read the associated help page, as some devices may require to be supplied with microcode (aka “firmware”) before they can be used.

For an indication of support with a specific device, see the Wireless Adapter Chipset Directory.

PCI Devices

See HowToIdentifyADevice/PCI for more information

module name

Device name(s)

help page

free (?)

acx-mac80211

Texas Instruments chipsets (ACX100/TNETW1100, ACX111/TNETW1130)

acx

X-(

adm8211

ADMtek ADM8211 chipset

adm8211

{OK}

airo

?airo

?

arlan

?arlan

?

ath5k

Atheros Communications chipsets (AR5210, AR5211, AR5212, AR5213, AR5414, AR2413, AR242x)

ath5k

{OK}

ath9k

Atheros Communications 802.11n chipsets

ath9k

{OK}

atmel_pci

Atmel at76c506 chipset

atmel_pci

X-(

b43
b43legacy

Broadcom chipsets

bcm43xx

X-(

brcm80211
brcmsmac

Broadcom chipsets (BCM4313, BCM43224, BCM43225)

brcm80211

X-(

hostap_pci
hostap_plx

Intersil Prism 2/2.5/3 chipsets

hostap

{OK} /X-( 1

ipw2100
ipw2200

Intel PRO/Wireless 2100
Intel PRO/Wireless 2200
Intel PRO/Wireless 2915

ipw2200

X-(

iwl3945
iwl4965

Intel PRO/Wireless 3945
Intel PRO/Wireless 4965

iwlegacy

X-(

iwlagn
iwlwifi

Intel Wireless WiFi Link
Intel Wireless-N
Intel Advanced-N
Intel Ultimate-N

iwlwifi

X-(

mwl8k

Marvell chipsets (88W8363, 88W8366, 88W8687)

mwl8k

X-(

orinoco_nortel
orinoco_plx
orinoco_tmd

Lucent/Agere Hermes and Intersil Prism 2/2.5/3 chipsets

orinoco

{OK} /X-( 2

p54pci

Intersil Prism54 chipsets (ISL3877, ISL3880, ISL3886, ISL3890)

prism54

X-(

r8192_pci
r8192e_pci

Realtek RTL8192E chipset

rtl819x

X-(

rt2400pci

Ralink chipsets (RT2400/RT2460, RT2401/RT2460)

rt2400pci

{OK}

rt2500pci

Ralink RT2500/RT2560 chipset

WiFi/rt2500

{OK}

rt2800pci

Ralink chipsets (RT2760, RT2790, RT2860, RT2890, RT3060, RT3062, RT3090, RT3091, RT3092, RT3390, RT3562, RT3592, RT5390)

rt2800pci

X-(

rt2860sta

Ralink chipsets (RT2760/RT2790/RT2860/RT2890, RT3090/RT3091/RT3092)

rt2860sta

X-( {i}

rt61pci

Ralink chipsets (RT2501/2561, RT2600/RT2661)

rt61pci

X-(

rtl8180

Realtek chipsets (RTL8180, RTL8185)

rtl818x

{OK}

r8187se
rtl8187se

Realtek RTL8187SE chipset

rtl818x

{OK}

rtl8192ce

Realtek chipsets (RTL8188CE, RTL8192CE)

rtl819x

X-(

rtl8192de

Realtek chipsets (RTL8188DE, RTL8192DE)

rtl819x

X-(

rtl8192se

Realtek chipsets (RTL8191SE, RTL8192SE)

rtl819x

X-(

strip

?strip

?

wavelan

?wavelan

?

wl

Broadcom chipsets (BCM4311, BCM4312, BCM4313, BCM4321, BCM4322, BCM43224, BCM43225, BCM43227, BCM43228)

wl

X-(

Atheros Communications AR5005VL (AR5513) chipset [168c:0020]

NdisWrapper

{X}

InProComm IPN 2120 chipset [17fe:2120]

NdisWrapper

{X}

InProComm IPN 2220 chipset [17fe:2220]

NdisWrapper

{X}

Marvell Libertas 88W8335 chipset [11ab:1faa]

NdisWrapper

{X}

WavePlus WP1200 chipset [17f7:0001]

NdisWrapper

{X}

Legend :
{OK} = OK ; {X} Unsupported(No Driver) ; /!\ = Error (Couldn’t get it working); [?] Unknown, Not Test ; [-] Not-applicable
{i} = Configuration Required; X-( = Only works with a proprietary driver and/or firmware

  • An extended list of PCI-IDs to kernel-module mapping is available at DeviceDatabase/PCI.

USB Devices

See HowToIdentifyADevice/USB for more information

module name

Device name(s)

help page

free (?)

acx-mac80211

Texas Instruments chipsets (ACX100USB, TNETW1450)

acx

X-(

ar5523

Atheros Communications chipsets (AR5005UG, AR5005UX)

ar5523

X-(

ar9170usb

Atheros Communications AR9170 chipset

ar9170usb

{OK} /X-( 3

at76c50x-usb
at76_usb

Atmel chipsets (at76c503, at76c505, at76c505a)

at76_usb

X-(

ath9k_htc

Atheros Communications chipsets (AR9271, AR7010)

ath9k_htc

{OK} 4/ X-(

carl9170

Atheros Communications AR9170 chipset

carl9170

{OK}

orinoco_usb

Lucent/Agere Hermes chipset

orinoco_usb

X-(

p54usb

Intersil Prism54 chipsets (ISL3886, ISL3887)

prism54

X-(

prism2_usb

Intersil Prism 2/2.5/3 chipsets

linux-wlan-ng

{OK}

r8712u
r8192s_usb

Realtek chipsets (RTL8188SU, RTL8191SU, RTL8192SU)

rtl819x

X-(

r8192u_usb

Realtek RTL8192U chipset

rtl819x

X-(

rndis_wlan

Broadcom BCM4320 chipset

rndis_wlan

{OK}

rt2500usb

Ralink RT2500USB/RT2571 chipset

rt2500usb

{OK}

rt2800usb

Ralink chipsets (RT2070, RT2770, RT2870, RT3070, RT3071, RT3072, RT3370, RT3572, RT5370)

rt2800usb

X-(

rt2870sta

Ralink chipsets (RT2770/RT2870, RT3070/RT3071/RT3072)

rt2870sta

X-(

rt73usb

Ralink RT2501USB/RT2571W chipset

WiFi/rt73

X-(

rtl8187

Realtek chipsets (RTL8187, RTL8187B)

rtl818x

{OK}

rtl8192cu

Realtek chipsets (RTL8188CE-VAU, RTL8188CUS, RTL8192CU)

rtl819x

X-(

usb8xxx

Marvell Libertas 88W8388 chipset

libertas

X-(

vt6656_stage

VIA VT6656 chipset

vt665x

X-(

zd1201

ZyDAS ZD1201 chipset

zd1201

X-(

zd1211rw

ZyDAS ZD1211/1211B and Atheros AR5007UG chipsets

zd1211rw

X-(

Netgear MA111v2 [0846:4230]

NdisWrapper

{X}

Netgear WN111v1 [0846:9000]

NdisWrapper

{X}

TRENDware TEW-424UB v2 [0457:0163]

NdisWrapper

{X}

  • An extended list of USB-IDs to kernel-module mapping is available at DeviceDatabase/USB.

PC Card (PCMCIA) Devices

See HowToIdentifyADevice/PC_Card for more information

module name

Device name(s)

help page

free (?)

acx-mac80211

Texas Instruments chipsets (ACX100/TNETW1100, ACX111/TNETW1130)

acx

X-(

adm8211

ADMtek ADM8211 chipset

adm8211

{OK}

airo_cs

?airo_cs

?

ath5k

Atheros Communications chipsets (AR5210, AR5211, AR5212, AR5213, AR5414)

ath5k

{OK}

ath9k

Atheros Communications 802.11n chipsets

ath9k

{OK}

atmel_cs

Atmel chipsets (at76c502x, at76c504x)

atmel_cs

X-(

b43
b43legacy

Broadcom chipsets

bcm43xx

X-(

hostap_cs

Intersil Prism 2/2.5/3 chipsets

hostap

{OK} /X-( 1

netwave_cs

?netwave cs

?

orinoco_cs

Lucent/Agere Hermes and Intersil Prism 2/2.5/3 chipsets

orinoco

{OK} /X-( 2

p54pci

Intersil Prism54 chipsets (ISL3877, ISL3880, ISL3886, ISL3890)

prism54

X-(

ray_cs

?ray cs

?

rt2400pci

Ralink chipsets (RT2400/RT2460, RT2401/RT2460)

rt2400pci

{OK}

rt2500pci

Ralink RT2500/RT2560 chipset

WiFi/rt2500

{OK}

rt2800pci

Ralink chipsets (RT2760, RT2790, RT2860, RT2890, RT3060, RT3062, RT3090, RT3091, RT3092, RT3390, RT3562, RT3592, RT5390)

rt2800pci

X-(

rt2860sta

Ralink chipsets (RT2760/RT2790/RT2860/RT2890, RT3090/RT3091/RT3092)

rt2860sta

X-(

rt61pci

Ralink chipsets (RT2501/2561, RT2600/RT2661)

rt61pci

X-(

rtl8180

Realtek chipsets (RTL8180, RTL8185)

rtl818x

{OK}

spectrum_cs

Symbol Spectrum24 Trilogy chipsets

orinoco

{OK} /X-( 5

wavelan_cs

?wavelan/cs

?

wl

Broadcom chipsets (BCM4311, BCM4312, BCM4313, BCM4321, BCM4322)

wl

X-(

wl3501_cs

?wl3501/cs

?

Atheros Communications AR5005VL (AR5513) chipset [168c:0020]

NdisWrapper

{X}

InProComm IPN 2120 chipset [17fe:2120]

NdisWrapper

{X}

Marvell Libertas 88W8335 chipset [11ab:1faa]

NdisWrapper

{X}

WavePlus WP1200 chipset [17f7:0002]

NdisWrapper

{X}

ZyDAS ZD1201 chipset (16-bit PC Cards)

n/a

{X}

Routers

module name

Device name(s)

help page

free (?)

source code

Linksys WRT54GC

Wikipedia; it isn’t similar to the WRT54G; The WRT54GC is based on the Sercomm IP806SM reference design the same chipset as the current Linksys WTY54G the Airlink101 AR315W, Alloy WRT2454AP, and Hawking HWR54G. You also can useNdisWrapper

X-(

Configure Interface

Your wireless network interface can be configured using a connection manager or Debian’s network interface configuration file (/etc/network/interfaces).

Graphical Network Connection Tools:

Network Manager for GNOME (network-manager) or wicd

For more information, please see WiFi/HowToUse.

Resources

The Debian Network Management Portal


Debian Network management portal

  1. Network configuration
  2. Network services
    1. Printing
    2. Data Base
      1. MySQL
      2. PostgreSql
    3. DHCP
    4. DNS
    5. FTP
    6. LDAP
    7. Mail
      1. Postfix
      2. Exim
      3. Mailing lists Managers
    8. Monitoring
    9. NTP
    10. PPP
    11. Remote Display
    12. File sharing
      1. NFS
      2. Samba
    13. Disk Sharing
    14. SSH
    15. SVN
    16. Web Server
      1. Apache
      2. Content Management Systems
      3. Web Application Servers
    17. IM
      1. Ejabberd
    18. IPSec VPN
    19. Azureus as a daemon

Network configuration

Need to be translated:

Network services

Printing

Data Base

MySQL

  • LAMP:Linux Apache MySQL PHP framework

PostgreSql

DHCP

DNS

FTP

  • FTP Clients and servers

LDAP

Mail

Postfix

Exim

Mailing lists Managers

Monitoring

NTP

PPP

Remote Display

File sharing

NFS

Samba

Disk Sharing

SSH

SVN

Web Server

Apache

Content Management Systems

Web Application Servers

IM

Ejabberd

IPSec VPN

Azureus as a daemon

Installation and configuration of Linux DHCP Server


For a cable modem or a DSL connection, the service provider dynamically assigns the IP address to your PC. When you install a DSL or a home cable router between your home network and your modem, your PC will get its IP address from the home router during boot up. A Linux system can be set up as a DHCP server and used in place of the router.

DHCP is not installed by default on your Linux system. It has to be installed by gaining root privileges:

$ su –

You will be prompted for the root password and you can install DHCP by the command:

# yum install dhcp

Once all the dependencies are satisfied, the installation will complete.

START THE DHCP SERVER

You will need root privileges for enabling, starting, stopping or restarting the dhcpd service:

# systemctl enable dhcpd.service

Once enabled, the dhcpd services can be started, stopped and restarted with:

# systemctl start dhcpd.service
# systemctl stop dhcpd.service
# systemctl restart dhcpd.service

or with the use of the following commands if systemctl command is not available:

# service dhcpd start
# service dhcpd stop
# service dhcpd restart

To determine whether dhcpd is running on your system, you can seek its status:

# systemctl status dhcpd.service

Another way of knowing if dhcpd is running is to use the ‘service‘ command:

# service dhcpd status

Note that dhcpd has to be configured to start automatically on next reboot.

CONFIGURING THE LINUX DHCP SERVER

Depending on the version of the Linux installation you are currently running, the configuration file may reside either in /etc/dhcpd or/etc/dhcpd3 directories.

When you install the DHCP package, a skeleton configuration file and a sample configuration file are created. Both are quite extensive, and the skeleton configuration file has most of its commands deactivated with # at the beginning. The sample configuration file can be found in the location /usr/share/doc/dhcp*/dhcpd.conf.sample.

When the dhcpd.conf file is created, a subnet section is generated for each of the interfaces present on your Linux system; this is very important. Following is a small part of the dhcp.conf file:

ddns-update-style interimignore client-updates

subnet 192.168.1.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 {

# The range of IP addresses the server

# will issue to DHCP enabled PC clients

# booting up on the network

range 192.168.1.201 192.168.1.220;

# Set the amount of time in seconds that

# a client may keep the IP address

default-lease-time 86400;

max-lease-time 86400;

# Set the default gateway to be used by

# the PC clients

option routers 192.168.1.1;

# Don’t forward DHCP requests from this

# NIC interface to any other NIC

# interfaces

option ip-forwarding off;

# Set the broadcast address and subnet mask

# to be used by the DHCP clients

option broadcast-address 192.168.1.255;

option subnet-mask 255.255.255.0;

# Set the NTP server to be used by the

# DHCP clients

option ntp-servers 192.168.1.100;

# Set the DNS server to be used by the

# DHCP clients

option domain-name-servers 192.168.1.100;

# If you specify a WINS server for your Windows clients,

# you need to include the following option in the dhcpd.conf file:

option netbios-name-servers 192.168.1.100;

# You can also assign specific IP addresses based on the clients’

# ethernet MAC address as follows (Host’s name is “laser-printer”:

host laser-printer {

hardware ethernet 08:00:2b:4c:59:23;

fixed-address 192.168.1.222;

}

}

#

# List an unused interface here

#

subnet 192.168.2.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 {

}

The IP addresses will need to be changed to meet the ranges suitable to your network. There are other option statements that can be used to configure the DHCP. As you can see, some of the resources such as printers, which need fixed IP addresses, are given the specific IP address based on the NIC MAC address of the device.

For more information, you may read the relevant man pages:

# man dhcp-options

ROUTING WITH A DHCP SERVER

When a PC with DHCP configuration boots, it requests for the IP address from the DHCP server. For this, it sends a standard DHCP request packet to the DHCP server with a source IP address of 255.255.255.255. A route has to be added to this 255.255.255.255 address so that the DHCP server knows on which interface it has to send the reply. This is done by adding the route information to the/etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/route-eth0 file, assuming the route is to be added to the eth0 interface:

#

# File /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/route-eth0
#
255.255.255.255/32 dev eth0

After defining the interface for the DHCP routing, it has to be further ensured that your DHCP server listens only to that interface and to no other. For this the /etc/sysconfig/dhcpd file has to be edited and the preferred interface added to the DHCPDARGS variable. If the interface is to be eth0 following are the changes that need to be made:

# File: /etc/sysconfig/dhcpd

DHCPDARGS=eth0

TESTING THE DHCP

Using the netstat command along with the -au option will show the list of interfaces listening on the bootp or DHCP UDP port:

# netstat -au  | grep bootp

will result in the following:

udp     0         0 192.168.1.100:bootps         *:*

Additionally, a check on the /var/log/messages file will show the defined interfaces used from the time the dhcpd daemon was started:

Feb  24 17:22:44 Linux-64 dhcpd: Listening on LPF/eth0/00:e0:18:5c:d8:41/192.168.1.0/24
Feb  24 17:22:44 Linux-64 dhcpd: Sending on  LPF/eth0/00:e0:18:5c:d8:41/192.168.1.0/24

This confirms the DHCP Service has been installed with success and operating correctly